Some crude, simplistic and generalised definitions:
Anarchism: A stateless society (i.e. no rulers/government). The opposite of “statism”. Numerous off-shoots such as Anarcho-Primitivism, Anarcho-Capitalism, Anarcho-Communism and Anarcho-Feminism.
Anarcho-Capitalism: The belief in a stateless society, but where the free-market dictates all decisions and all social-norms and ideas of said society.
Anarcho-Communism: The same as Communism, but is against the idea of vanguardism (i.e. during socialism, a leader is needed to help move society from capitalism to communism). As anarcho-communists believe in total-freedom and the notion of rejecting all authority, the transition from capitalism to communism is dictated via democratic means from the people as opposed to a leader (which they oppose due to anarchist notions of opposing authority/hierarchy).
Anarcho-Feminism: Anarchist ideology with some feminism thrown in for the lols.
Anarcho-Primitivism: An ideology which combines green philosophy and anarchism. The belief in a hunter-gatherer society and that industry and technology isn’t just unnatural or inhuman but damaging to the environment. An anarcho-primitivist society would thus rely of nature to survive and use simplistic methods to get food, etc.
Britain First: A political party which genuinely thinks that the serious issue of jihad of the sword and Islamic extremism will be solved by going outside Anjem Choudary’s house and shouting badly-phrased patriotic maxims through a megaphone.
Burkean Conservatism: Conservativism as interpreted by British MP, Edmund Burke. Strong emphasis on Christian morality.
Capitalism: A form of society where there is a class-hierarchy (i.e. lower, middle, upper class), and where individuals own the means of production (i.e. a factory) in their business/company in a free-market. Workers are employed by the capitalist (the individual who owns the means of production) to make the products and earn a lower wage than the capitalist. Marxists don’t particularly like this, as it’s the direct opposite of Communism (see above).
Communism: A classless, moneyless society which is the direct opposite of capitalism (see above). No singular individual owns the means of production – instead all the workers own it. Decisions are made in each factory (just to be specific) by the process of direct democracy. Thus decisions are run horizontally (all sections of society engage and co-operate with one another to make choices) as opposed to vertically (an individual(s) instructs the people below on what to do). Thus, due to the horizontal nature in which the society is structured, most communists subscribe to the maxim of: “Communism is democracy taken seriously”.
The Conservative Party (UK): A political party which isn’t conservative. They’re only pretending to be conservative and are lying.
Cultural Marxism: What was originally an economic policy concerning how the proletariat is oppressed by capitalism, cultural Marxism transfers ideas of class into ideas of identity-politics. Again, collectivist as it deals with groups of people: ethnic minorities, women, LGBT (and many others). Thus it withholds ideas that culturally dominant ideologies like heteronormativity are oppressing LGBT people and the gender-binaries involved in patriarchy oppress women.
Direct Democracy: Also known as “pure democracy”, is a form of democracy where the people vote on each individual policy or change imbedded into society/workplace/institution. Thus due to this, direct democracy is considered to be the most ‘democratic’ style/form of democracy.
Existentialism: A political and philosophical ideology which has been heavily influential to the arts. The fundamental belief that life itself is a pointless, meaningless farce, that our very existence has no real purpose, thus resulting into the notion that our day-to-day process of being alive is utterly absurd.
Fascism: A hotly-contested political-ideology which many political-scientists struggle to define. Some argue that fascism and totalitarianism (see below) are essentially synonyms. Fascism has some (or all) of these ideas incorporated into it: elitism, militarism, prejudice against minorities, nationalism, imperialism and jingoism. Believed amongst some (specifically Orwell in his essay “What is Fascism?”) that Fascism is less a political-ideology and more an insult (“You bloody fascist!”) employed to derail or cheaply win an argument.
Feminism: A political movement concerning equality between the sexes, and as some feminists believe (i.e. Germaine Greer), not just equality but liberation for women. Consists of numerous ideas which all stem from the notion of Patriarchy (see below), ideas include: sex-positivism, rape-culture, gender-binaries, the gender pay-gap, control over their own bodies (mainly with the issue of abortion), slut-shaming, pornography/prostitution being an objectification of women and many others. Feminism – contrary to popular belief – isn’t a homogenous block of people who all share similar beliefs concerning the above. All feminists believe in female freedom and equality but express it differently – i.e. one feminist may believe pornography is exploitative of women thus anti-feminist, whilst another feminist might believe that pornography is liberating for women sexually as it allows women to express their sexuality without being ashamed of themselves (and/or their bodies).
Free Market: A market which is “free” – thus a market which isn’t regulated by government/state or any authoritative outside-forces. The market is instead controlled by people and businesses who buy and sell products/services.
Gender: Not the same as “sex”. Has two meanings: (1) Masculinity and femininity (2) The gender-identity of an individual – i.e. a person may have male anatomy but identifies as female and vice-versa.
Gender-identity: The identity of how someone perceives themselves to be in terms of sex (i.e. someone perceiving themselves as being male or being female or both or neither).
The Hague: A slang term for the International Criminal Court (ICC). The ICC is based in an area called ‘Hague’ and isn’t officially known as “The Hague”. However, “The Hague” as a name sounds threatening and mysterious (plus the phrase “The International Criminal Court” doesn’t exactly roll easily off the tongue) so the ICC is often referred to its slang name – thus people say phrases like “I want to see that genocidal scum stand trial at The Hague”. The Hague is where convicted war criminals and individuals who face charges of crimes against humanity, crimes against peace and crimes of aggression go to face sentencing. Bastards prosecuted there include: Slobodan Milošević (he died during the long trial proceedings so was never prosecuted), Charles Taylor, Jean-Pierre Bemba, Germain Katanga.
Identity Politics: A “genre” of politics associated with the identity of the individual and their demographic make-up – i.e. race, sex, gender, sexuality, country of birth, gender-identity, religion. Identity-politics is inherently based around the famous maxim: “The personal is political”/”The personal as political”.
Ideology: A collection of ideas and concepts which form a view of how one perceives the world. In general, all the ideas slot and combine (and work) together to form a cohesive argument for how the world should be perceived, or even: how the world should actually be. Marxism is thus a worldview with numerous ideas which put forwards the concept that society is inherently founded on notions of class and that the upper-classes control the lower-classes, and this very hierarchical construct is what makes society run and never stop.
John Stuart Mill (JS Mill): Very important thinker in the Classical Liberal movement (personally, my favourite Classical Liberal philosopher). Wrote about free speech, utilitarianism and women’s rights. Has written classic (and bare dope) books including: On Liberty, On Social Liberty, The Subjection of Women.
Jucheism: The political ideology of North Korea. Consists of intense xenophobia towards America (and indeed Americans), high-level (showcase) militarism, a cult-of-personality surrounding the Korean Workers Party (KWP) and all the members of the Kim-family, Confucianism and Stalinism. It subscribes to Marxist thought only on a veneer level in the sense that in Juche text, Marxist language is used (i.e. “the worker”, “revolution” – but Jucheism isn’t about creating a classless society, not even a “Culturally Marxist” (see above) society).
The Labour Party (UK): A political party which isn’t left-wing. They’re only pretending to be left-wing and are lying.
LGBT – Acronym for Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender (sometimes referred to in another order: GLBT)
Liberalism – A political movement concerning issues over the individual and how the individual is being oppressed by the state. Liberalism also concerns “liberal values” such as freedom of the press and free-speech as open discussion allows the individual to criticise “the powers that be”. In its original form – i.e. (Classical) Liberalism, it was concerned with social-politics, and then later on it became “Neo-liberalism” (see below).
Marxism – A political movement similar in a sense to Liberalism in its criticism of the state, but fundamentally different. Whereas Liberalism focuses on individualist ideas, Marxism focuses on collectivist ideas (i.e. “the people”/multiple individuals). Originally started off as an economic philosophy (with some social ideas but mainly economic), it concerned how capitalism, the state and the media were oppressing the proletariat. Later developed into a social form of politics with “Cultural Marxism” (see above).
Neo-Liberalism: What was originally a social-idea then developed into an economic one. Thus the ideas of freedom for the individual were then transferred into freedom of the markets. Thus neo-liberals subscribe to the belief that the individual can challenge the state by being able to increase his/her power of their own accord by taking part in the free-market (thus neo-liberals wish the state to not interfere/regulate the market so that the market can be “free”).
North Korea: A very nasty place….Also known as The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Subscribes to the ideology of Jucheism (see above). Isn’t Marxist.
Owen Jones: A very sexy man. A Marxist. Also very northern.
Patriarchy: An ideology which puts forward the belief not necessarily that men run society (Thatcher was Prime Minister, but according to feminism, the society she governed was still patriarchal), but that society is structured economically, politically and culturally in such a way that men are considered/made/are to be in a more dominant position to women. Patriarchy can be oppressive to men as some men do not wish to be dominant in terms of roles (i.e. some men are naturally more feminine).
Political Correctness: Can be used positively and negatively, as an insult or as a description of a theory. Political Correctness is strongly linked with Cultural Marxism (see above) and is the idea that equality can be created by controlling language as language (as some have argued) affects thought, thus affects the general opinion of the population. For example, political correctness argues that patriarchy has embedded it’s way into language as words which entail high-power/authoritative positions have the word “man” in it: “chairman”, “policeman” – thus political-correctness wishes to neutralise these terms into “chairperson” and “police officer”.
Postmodernism: Has numerous definitions in numerous academic subjects from literature, to film and philosophy…But in terms of political-science, postmodernism is the rejection of all ideologies and is the belief that there isn’t one conclusive way to perceive the world, instead the world “just happens” and that there is no real structure, instead society just operates. Paradoxically, the rejection of all ideologies on the belief that studying ideologies is a useless method to understand our world, is and of itself an actual ideology.
Representative Democracy: A form of democracy where the people vote for candidates to represent them in parliament. Thus, it is the notion that individuals are voted in on the belief that they are representing the views of the people (or their constituency) or a specific part of society. Thus, when debating political issues in parliament, elected candidates talk from the viewpoint of the people they are “representing”.
Sex: Not the same as gender (see above). Sex is reference to the anatomical definition of someone’s male/female identity. There is another definition of sex, but I presume, you dirty bastard, already know what it is.
Statism: The belief that a state/government is not only required, but needed to allow society to function properly and maintain itself.
Socialism: The transitionary stage to Communism (see above). To get from capitalism to communism, most left-wing thinkers genuinely tend to believe that it can’t be a sudden overnight change but a gradual transitionary process.
Totalitarianism: A political ideology concerning a party’s total control over the people. The ideology implemented by the party affects every single aspect of ordinary life including: the media, entertainment and ideas around social-norms. Often violent methods are employed to prevent dissenters or to dispel of them: this includes concentration camps, torture, long prison terms (even for minor offences) and capital punishment. Made famous via science-fiction writers, particularly George Orwell. Totalitarian leaders (or “totalitarians”) can exist on either side of the left-right dichotomy; leaders include: Kim il-Sung, Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, Nicolae Ceaușescu, Alexander Lukashenko, Saddam Hussein, General Augusto Pinochet, Bashar al-Assad, Robert Mugabe, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, António de Oliveira Salazar, Benito Mussolini, Francisco Franco, and many many more.
War Crime: A criminal offence as part of International Laws (laws which are applicable to multiple countries due to pacts and agreements). War Crimes are offences designed to dilute the harmful effects of war. The concept of “war crimes”, “crimes against humanity” and “human rights” were made as a response to 20th century totalitarianism (Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini, etc). This is a good link for a summary of information surrounding the concept of ‘War Crimes’.